Manual Testing Interview Questions And Answers

Q.1. Why Is Software Testing Required?
A. It is a mandatory process which is essential to qualify software as usable for the production. Here are some compelling reasons to prove why is it needed.1. The testing process guarantees the software will work as per the expectation of the customers.
2. It reduces the coding cycles by identifying issues at the initial stage of the development.
3. Discovery of issues in the earlier SDLC phases ensures proper utilization of resources and prevents any cost escalations.
4. The testing team brings customer view into the process and finds use cases that a developer may overlook.
5. Any failure, defect or a bug observed by the customer distorts a firm’s credibility which only the testing can ensure not to happen.
Q.2.When Should You Start The Testing Process?
A. Testing should begin from the inception of the project. Once you get the requirements baselined, System testing plan and test cases preparation should start. It also helps in exploring any gaps in the functional requirements.
Q.3.When Should You Stop The Testing Process?
A. The testing activity ends after the team completes the following milestones.1.Test case execution: The successful completion of a full test cycle after the final bug fix marks the end of the testing phase.
2.Testing deadline: The end date of the validation stage also declares the closure of the validation if no critical or high priority defects remain in the system.
3.MTBF rate: It is the mean time between failures (MTBF) which reflects the reliability of the components. If it is on the higher side, then PO and EM can decide to stop testing.
4.CC ratio: It is the amount of code covered via automated tests. If the team achieves the desired level of code coverage (CC) ratio, then they can choose to end the validation.
Q.4.When Should You Stop The Testing Process?
A. The testing activity ends after the team completes the following milestones.1.Test case execution: The successful completion of a full test cycle after the final bug fix marks the end of the testing phase.
2.Testing deadline: The end date of the validation stage also declares the closure of the validation if no critical or high priority defects remain in the system.
3.MTBF rate: It is the mean time between failures (MTBF) which reflects the reliability of the components. If it is on the higher side, then PO and EM can decide to stop testing.
4.CC ratio: It is the amount of code covered via automated tests. If the team achieves the desired level of code coverage (CC) ratio, then they can choose to end the validation.
Q.5.What Does Quality Assurance Mean In Software Testing?
A. Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach to certify a software development (SDLC) method that it is correct and follows the standard procedures. It may bring changes in the process and cause to replace the weak practices if it identifies any. It includes review activities such as the inspection of documents, test cases, source code, and automation, etc.
Q.6.What Does Quality Control Mean In Software Testing?
A. Quality control is a product-oriented approach to qualify that the product under development meets the original software specifications. It also results in changes to the product if there are bugs in the system or some deviation observed in the implementation. It includes different type of testing to perform which are functional (unit, usability, integration, etc.) and non-functional (compatibility, security, performance, etc.).
Q.7.What Does Verification Mean In Software Testing?
A. In software testing, the verification is a means to confirm that product development is taking place as per the specifications and using the standard development procedures. It comprises of the following activities.1.Inspections
2.Reviews
3.Walk-throughs
4.Demos
Q.8.What Does Validation Mean In Software Testing?
A. In software testing, the validation is a means to confirm that the developed product doesn’t have any bugs and working as expected. It comprises of the following activities.1.Functional testing
2.Non-functional testing
Q.9.What Is Static Testing, When Does It Start, And What Does It Cover?
A. It is a white box testing technique 1,which directs the developers to verify their code with the help of a checklist to find errors in it.
2.Developers can start it done without actually finalizing the application or program.
3.Static testing is more cost-effective than Dynamic testing.
4.It covers more areas than Dynamic testing in a shorter time.
Q.10.What Is Dynamic Testing, When Does It Start, And What Does It Cover?
A. 1.Dynamic testing involves the execution of an actual application with valid inputs and checking of the expected output.
2.Examples of Dynamic testing are Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing and Acceptance Testing.
3.Dynamic testing happens after code deployment.
4.It starts during the validation stage.
Q.11.What Is Test Plan And What Does It Include?
A. It is the responsibility of a Test Lead or Testing Manager to create the Test Plan document.A test plan captures all possible testing activities to guarantee a quality product. It gathers data from the product description, requirement, and use case documents.The test plan document includes the following:1.Testing objectives
2.Test scope
3.Testing the frame
4.The environment
5.Reason for testing
6.The criteria for entrance and exit
7.Deliverables
8.Risk factors
Q.12.What Is Test Plan And What Does It Include?
A. It is the responsibility of a Test Lead or Testing Manager to create the Test Plan document.A test plan captures all possible testing activities to guarantee a quality product. It gathers data from the product description, requirement, and use case documents.The test plan document includes the following:1.Testing objectives
2.Test scope
3.Testing the frame
4.The environment
5.Reason for testing
6.The criteria for entrance and exit
7.Deliverables
8.Risk factors
Q.13.What Are Test Cases?
A. A test case is a sequence of actions and observations that are used to verify the desired functionality.
A good test case helps to identify problems in the requirements or design of an application.
Q.14.What Is The Difference Between High Level And Low-Level Test Case?
A.High-level test cases cover the core  functionality of a product like standard business flows.
2. Low-level test cases are those related to user interface (UI) in the application.
Q.15.What Is A Test Scenario?
A.Test Scenario represents a condition or a possibility which defines what to test. It can have multiple test cases to cover a scenario.
Q.16.How Is A Test Case Different From A Test Scenario?
A. A test case is a testing artifact to verify a particular flow with defined input values, test preconditions, expected output, and postconditions prepared to cover specific behavior.
A test scenario can have one or many associations with a test case which means it can include multiple test cases.
Q.17.What Is Meant By Test Data?
A. Test data is a set of input values required to execute the test cases. Testers define the test data according to the test requirements. They can do it manually or use generation tools.For example, if a tester is validating a graphics tool, then he would need to procure relevant data for graph generation.
Q.18.What Is Meant By Test Harness?
A. A test harness is a set of scripts and demo data which tests an application under variable conditions and observes its behavior and outputs.
It emphasizes on running the test cases randomly rather than in a sequence.
Q.19.What Is Meant By Test Coverage?
A. Test coverage is a quality metric to represent the amount (in %) of testing completed for a software product.
It is applicable for both functional and non-functional testing activities. This metric helps testers to add missing test cases.
Q.20.Is It Possible To Achieve 100% Coverage Of Testing? How Would You Ensure It?
A. No, it’s not possible to perform 100% testing of any product. But you can follow the below steps to come closer.

    1. Set a hard limit on the following factors.
      • Percentage of test cases passed.
      • The no. of bug found.
    2. Set a red flag if,
      • Test budget depleted
      • Deadlines breached
    3. Set a green flag if,
      • The entire functionality gets covered in test cases.
      • All critical & high bugs must have a status of CLOSED.
Q.21.Beside Test Case & Test Plan, What Documents A Tester Should Produce?
A. Here are a few other documents to prepare.

  • Testing metrics
  • Test design specs
  • End-to-end scenarios
  • Test summary reports
  • Bug reports
Q.22.What Is A Business Requirements Document (BRD)?
A. BRD provides a detailed business solution for a project including the documentation of customer needs and expectations.
BRD fulfills the following objectives.

  • Gain agreement with stakeholders.
  • Provide clarity on the business requirements.
  • Describe the solution that meets the customer/business needs.
  • Determine the input for the next phase of the project.
Q.23.What Is Meant By Integration Testing?
A. Integration Testing validates how well two or more units of software interact amongst each other.There are three ways to validate integration.

  • Big Bang Approach.
  • Top-Down Approach.
  • Bottom-Up Approach.
Q.24.What Is Meant By Big Bang Approach?
A. It means to merge all the modules after testing of individual modules and verify the functionality.
It involves the use of dummy modules such as Stubs and Drivers. They make up for missing components to simulate data exchange.
Q.25.What Is Meant By Top-Down Approach?
A. Testing goes from top to bottom. It first validates the High-level modules and then goes for low-level modules.
Finally, it tests the integrated modules to ensure the system is working as expected.
Q.26.What Is Meant By The Bottom-Up Approach?
A. It is a reverse of the Top-Down method. In this, testing occurs from bottom to up.
It first tests the lowest level modules and then goes for high-level modules. Finally, it verifies the integrated modules to ensure the system is working as expected.
Q.27.What Is Meant By System Testing?
A. It is the final testing activity which tests the fully integrated application and confirms its compliance with business requirements.Alternatively, we call it as End to End testing. It verifies the whole system to ensure that the application is behaving as expected.
Q.28.Can We Do System Testing At Any Stage?
A. No. System testing should start only if all modules are in place and work correctly. However, it should happen before the UAT (User Acceptance testing).
Q.29. What different types of manual testing are there?
A. Different types of manual testing are;

  • Black Box Testing
  • White Box Testing
  • Unit Testing
  • System Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • Acceptance Testing
Q.30.What Is Meant By Smoke Testing?
A. Smoke testing confirms the basic functionality works for a product. It requires you to identify the most basic test cases for execution.
Q.31. Explain the difference between alpha testing and beta testing.
A. Alpha Testing – It is a type of software testing performed to identify bugs before releasing the product to real users or to the public. Alpha Testing is a type of user acceptance testing.Beta Testing – It is performed by real users of the software application in a real environment. Beta Testing is also a type of user acceptance testing.
Q.32. What are the different levels of manual testing?
A. Four levels of manual testing are:
Unit testing – It is a way of testing the smallest piece of code referred to as a unit that can be logically isolated in a system. It is mainly focused on the functional correctness of the standalone module.Integration Testing – It is a level of software testing where individual units are combined and tested to verify if they are working as they intend to when integrated. The main aim here is to test the interface between the modules.System Testing – In system testing all the components of the software are tested as a whole in order to ensure that the overall product meets the requirements specified. There are dozens of types of system testing, including usability testing, regression testing, and functional testing.User Acceptance Testing – The final level, acceptance testing, or UAT (user acceptance testing), determines whether or not the software is ready to be released.
Q.33. What is a testbed in manual testing?
A. The testbed is an environment configured for testing. It is an environment used for testing an application, including the hardware as well as any software needed to run the program to be tested. It consists of hardware, software, network configuration, an application under test, other related software.
Q.34. Explain the procedure for manual testing?
A. The manual testing process comprises the following steps:

  • Planning and Control
  • Analysis and Design
  • Implementation and Execution
  • Evaluating exit criteria and Reporting
  • Test Closure activities
Q.35. What are the advantages of manual testing?
A.  Merits of manual testing are:

  • It is a cheaper way of testing when compared to automated testing
  • Analysis of product from the point of view of the end-user is possible only with manual testing
  • GUI testing can be done more accurately with the help of manual testing as visual accessibility and preferences are difficult to automate
  • East to learn for new people who have just entered into testing
  • It is highly suitable for short-term projects when test-scripts are not going to be repeated and reused for thousands of times
  • Best suited when the project is at early stages of its development
  • Highly reliable, since automated tests can contain errors and missed bugs